173 Whole Meal and Flour from T. aestivum – Determination of Rheological Behavior as a Function of Mixing and Temperature Increase

Methods Type: Generic Methods
Key data
Number: 173
Analyte: Rheological Behavior (Function of Mixing and Temperature Increase)
Matrix: Whole Meal and Flour from T. aestivum
Year of Approval: 2011
Scope: This method is applicable to flour obtained from T. aestivum coming from a laboratory or an industrial mill. It can also be applied to whole meal of wheat ground under standardized conditions.
Principle: Determination of dough behaviors subjected to mixing stresses and temperature stresses during constant phase, followed by a heating phase, a holding phase at high temperatures, and a cooling phase. Flour is hydrated to reach a maximum consistency (1.1 Nm) during a first phase at 30°C. The dough is mixed between two mixer arms with a rotating speed of 80 rpm. The torque created by the dough between the two arms is registered. Mixing continues as the mixer temperature is raised to 90°C with a temperature increase of 4°C/minute. Temperature is maintained at 90°C for 15 minutes. The mixer bowl is then cooled down to 50°C with a temperature decrease of 4°C/minute. Dough consistency during the entire process is measured as well as dough temperature. The results give indication on the protein strength, starch gelatinisation and retrogradation, enzymatic systems as well as interactions.


Dough behavior during the mixing process is related to many parameters. Some are more related to protein content and quality such as water uptake, dough development time, and dough stability during mixing. Others are related to starch content and quality such as gelatinization, setback, gelling, etc.
By measuring the torque of the dough during mixing with an increase in temperature, the Mixolab makes it possible to have complete information on the sample allowing the user to better understand the wheat or flour characteristics.

Standard References

  • ICC-Standard No 110/1 Determination of the moisture content of cereals and cereal products (practical method); 1976.
  • AACC International Approved Method 44-15A Moisture – Air Oven Method

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